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History of the
Health Sciences Section

An Alchemist In His Study, 1900s

Abstracts for the 2006
MLA Annual Meeting Program, Phoenix, AZ

Program: History of the Health Sciences Section

Between "Madness" and Mental Health: Changing Perceptions and Treatment

Sunny L. Worel, AHIP
Changing Measures of Madness: The Case of Winnie Ruth Judd

One of the most notorious and controversial crimes in the history of Phoenix Arizona was the case of Winnie Ruth Judd. The crime left Ruth's chums Agnes Ann LeRoi and Hedvig Samuelson shot, dismembered, and shipped in trunks to Los Angeles in October of 1931. The court initially found Ruth guilty of this crime, acting alone, and in sound mind. She was sentenced to hang, but was declared insane in time to save her from the gallows. She spent much of her life at the Arizona State Hospital for the Insane, escaping often, sometimes even for years. Ruth's true story has merged with folklore in the historical record of Arizona. Ruth's mental condition was the subject of much debate during her trials, appeals, and escapes over the forty years she fought to regain her freedom. What evidence is there to substantiate the mental health of Ruth Judd? What measures were used? Records from the Arizona State Archives, Arizona Historical Society, Clements Library (University of Michigan), tabloids, and newspapers from around the country weave together a strange tale of a woman attempting to recapture a normal life. Cultural elements of the Twenties to the Seventies color the picture of the mental health of Winnie Ruth Judd. Particular situations in her fight to regain her freedom called for different strategies, blurring much of the evidence for or against Ruth Judd's sanity.

Lee Vucovich, AHIP
Societal Perceptions of Anorexia Nervosa: From the Saintly to the Scientific

[The objective of this paper is] to trace society's changing perceptions surrounding Anorexia Nervosa (AN), a serious condition in which a person refuses to maintain body weight, over time. Although Anorexia Nervosa is currently described a mental illness, "Holy Anorexia", was revered during the Middle Ages. Today, biomedical and neurobiological studies offer new insights which could transform current perceptions of Anorexia Nervosa. The media seems fascinated with Anorexia Nervosa. Currently described as a mental disorder, Anorexia Nervosa has serious physical symptoms and a long term mortality rate of 5-10%. Although Anorexia Nervosa was first identified in the late 19th Century, fasting to the point of self-starvation was described in biographies of several Saints from the Middle Ages. A series of case studies drawn from the psychological and medical literature and popular press will illustrate society's changing perception of this condition. Contemporary perceptions of the cultural and emotional basis for Anorexia Nervosa will be included. A review of current medical and psychological literature will provide a summary of neurobiological and biomedical investigations focusing on serotoninergic dysregulation, neuropeptides, brain imaging, and the neuroscience of feeding behavior. Such research should guide development of new pharmacological treatments and new understanding of the etiology of Anorexia Nervosa.

Bradley W. Bishop
Implications for Librarianship Resulting from Deinstitutionalization
Prior to the discovery of mental illnesses' somatic base, involuntary commitment occurred. Stigma developed because of the separation of mental health's treatment facilities and funding mechanisms during institutionalization. The deinstitutionalization movement in mental health affects libraries' collection development and training. How have libraries been instrumental in the dissemination of mental health information? In addition, what steps can they take to reduce the stigma of mental illness in their own libraries? This narrative will search for examples of special accommodations in libraries for users with mental illnesses, who may or may not be homeless. In addition, a telephone survey of both public and medical libraries' ADA Librarian, will inquire about specific library guidelines on the treatment of users with mental illnesses, who may or may not be homeless. In addition, the survey will include questions about the libraries efforts to educate the public about mental health. Prior to the telephone survey, the researcher will perform a review of each library's catalog in order to determine each library's holdings on mental health and related issues. If the library's information is found outdated, the telephone survey will include questions about how this void will affect each library's future collection development.

Joan M. Stoddart, AHIP
The Retreat at York: Providing a Transformation to Humane Treatment of the Mentally Ill in the 19th Century

This poster will examine the role of the Retreat at York; an English asylum which was founded in 1796 by the York Society of Friends (The Quakers) led by William Tuke. It is credited with revolutionizing the attitude and treatment for the mentally ill in England from cruelty, patient restraint and filth to one of dignity, decency and cleanliness The York Retreat can be credited with transforming the treatment of the mentally by utilized what was called "moral treatment" which acknowledged the connection between a sound mind and body, reflecting the Quaker belief in the importance of inner discipline and control. It largely abandoned the practices common to the day such as chaining and beating, purging and bleeding. Instead, the Retreat at York offered clean and comfortable rooms, activities including daily chores and outdoor exercise. It provided a homelike atmosphere with surrounding grounds that emphasized orderliness and serenity and an opportunity to heal. A treatise entitled "A Description of the Retreat, an Institution near York for Insane Persons" was written in 1813 by Samuel Tuke and is thought to be the first full length written account of a mental institution.

Clista Clanton.
Schizophrenia: Emerging from the Darkness

While the term schizophrenia is less than 100 years old, written documents have traced accounts of schizophrenia as far back as ancient Egypt. Over 100,000 new people in the U.S. alone are diagnosed with schizophrenia each year and it ranks among the top 10 causes of disability in developed countries worldwide. Sadly, however, this has been one of the most misunderstand of diseases. This poster will look at societal perceptions of schizophrenia throughout history, key research that has firmly established schizophrenia as a disease of the brain, and highlight some of the promising new pharmacological treatments that have made such a tremendous difference in the lives of both patients and their families

Program: History of the Health Sciences Section

Passing the Baton: Transforming Knowledge

Lucretia W. McClure, AHIP
The Sherrington School

"A thought," says A. N. Whitehead, "is a tremendous mode of excitement." A scientist whose ideas created great excitement was Charles Scott Sherrington, a visionary neurophysiologist who brought fresh insight to the new era of cellular histology. The nerve cell with its interconnections became his field. But he was not only a great neurophysiologist and winner of the Nobel Prize in 1932, he is equally well known as a teacher and mentor. Why did this one man have such am impact on neurophysiology? There are two aspects of his life and work that make clear why he is remembered today. First was his extraordinary work on spinal reflexes and the second his teaching of dozens of students during his fifty-one year career. The purpose of this paper is to explore the life and work of Charles Sherrington to determine who influenced and mentored him and why he had such influence on the students he mentored, students who followed his teaching and went on to make significant contributions of their own. In order to trace Sherrington's development, a search of the biographical literature is necessary. A review of his educational progress will show where he studied and with whom he was mentored. Following his path to learning will show why he became such an acknowledged mkentor. A search to identify the students who came to his laboratory will complete the picture. The list is no less than a roll call of the major players in the field. This is an impressive example of the transfer of knowledge, resulting in the creation of new knowledge

Helen-Ann Brown, AHIP
From Pap to ThinPrep to HPV Vaccine: Detection and Eradication of Cervical Cancer

[The] [o]bjective [of this paper is] [t]o trace the historical contribution of vaginal smears, the conventional Pap Smear, Babes'technique and liquid based ThinPrep to correctly detect cervical cancer and forecast the effectiveness of a new HPV-16 vaccine, Gardasil to contain and one day eradicate cervical cancer. : This is an historical review through published literature and anecdotes marking the contributions of George Papanicolaou of Cornell, Aurel A. Babes of Bucharest, ThinPrep, a liquid based cytology from CYTYC, and the bright promise of Gardasil, an HPV-16 Vaccine.

Jeremy Norman
A Leslie Morton Style Review of Selected Landmarks in MedicalBibliography from Alexandria to the Internet

Using examples from Garrison-Morton, this talk will be a discussion of the history of historical bibliography and list-making and how it is now being applied, with modifications, on the Internet

: Pamela M. Corley, AHIP
Genetics: From Genes to Genomes

There has been an incredible explosion of information in genetics. This poster will present some of the major landmarks in the history of genetics. : With images and accompanying text, this poster will illustrate key milestones in genetics. The presentation will use a dual timeline with scientific genetic events presented in the context of the significant events in information sciences and medical librarianship.

Program: History of the Health Sciences Section

Junk into History: Dealing With Archives And Gifts

Lisa A. Mix
Tips for Managing Archival Collections in the Health Sciences, or, What to do When You Can't do it All

This paper is directed toward librarians with limited knowledge of archival methods, who have been assigned responsibility for historical collections. The author will present some basic steps for handling archival collections, with emphasis on collections in the health sciences, and on managing with limited resources Most institutions assign archival functions to the library. However, not all libraries are able to afford a full-scale archival program or a full time archivist. Particularly in small libraries, responsibilities for managing archives may be assigned to a librarian with little prior experience in archives. Often, archival programs must function with limited resources. Archives in the health sciences present additional challenges, as some historical materials are subject to federal privacy regulations. Recognizing that many institutions "can't do it all", I will identify the basic essentials for a successful archives program, and present strategies for managing on limited resources. I will inform the audience of available resources for assisting archivists in the health sciences and for enhancing archival programs.

Fay Towell
Enhancing Value and Visibility: The Hospital Library as Manager of Corporate History

The Greenville Hospital Library serves over 7,500 health professionals system-wide. The 12 institutions composing the hospital system include acute care hospitals, a children's hospital, a psychiatric hospital, a rehabilitation hospital, and a long term care center. In a recent move to partner with state-wide universities, the Greenville Hospital System became a medical university in April, 2005. As libraries transition into the electronic age, we must be creative in order to enhance our value to our organizations. By volunteering to manage the archives, this library has become involved with collecting, preserving, and retrieving documents and artifacts that chart the development of Greenville Hospital System for the past 100 years. This involvement serves to increase the visibility of the library to those both within the organization and outside in the community. Patrons look to us for answers to questions that are other than medical, therefore diversifying the library's research capabilities. This paper will reference involvement of other hospital and medical university libraries in the archives as reported in the literature. The Library has become recognized as a place to seek knowledge about organizational and corporate history as well medical information, therefore diversifying both patrons and resources. :A record is kept of all requests that are answered with archive material and reported to the President's Council. Anecdotally, comments from patrons researching in the archives have been very favorable.

: Richard C. Wood, Margaret Vugrin, AHIP
Opening Pandora's Box: An Exercise in Inventorying Special Collections

Before a possible gift could be accepted approximately 1,600+ items needed to be identified, cataloged and photographed to create a product from which an independent appraisal could be made. Collections consisted of medical and pharmaceutical artifacts, books, and journals, from the 17th to the mid 20th Century. The director was asked to assess the collections and to prepare an inventory. The library director was assisted by an in-house reference librarian/photographer, a student assistant and on two occasions two additional librarians (a cataloguer and a former archivist) also joined the team during this eight month project. All items were numbered, identified and measured; this information was then dropped into PowerPoint. Multiple digital photographs were taken of all the items. Using PhotoShop, images were enhanced, converted to jpeg format and then dropped into the appropriate PowerPoint slide. The process of identification and organization employed various technologies to prepare final appraisal products, entailing many intricate steps that will be described in this presentation. Organization of all the 1,600+ items (which varied in size from several centimeters to more than three meters) and their photographs was extremely important. EndNote was used to create a database of the book and journal items. RESULTS: The end product was an elegantly-crafted CD containing images of all the items in PowerPoint files as well as bibliographies of the book and journal items that could then be used for appraisal purposes. CONCLUSION: Our use of fairly simple and readily-available tools in the creation of the end product demonstrates the applicability of these techniques to all manner of gifts to a library or other such institution.

Richard Nollan
Gloom Impenetrable: The Letters of William J. Armstrong

In 2005 roughly 100 letters by William James Armstrong were given to the University of Tennessee Health Sciences Historical Collections. They came to UT folded and carefully packed in a painted tin box. Dr. Armstrong moved to Mempis after the Civil War to set up a medical practice and to raise a family with his wife Lula Armstrong. During the two worst Yellow Fever epidemics of 1873 and 1878 Dr. Armstrong volunteered to stay in Memphis to help those who would not or could not leave. Dr. Armstrong's courage despite his powerlessness in the face of this disease is the central theme of this presentation. He moved his family into the country and the letters were preserved by Mrs. Armstrong. The letters contain a firsthand account of the doctor's observations of his work and his patients, and his speculations on the nature of the disease. The letters also paint a picture of the day to day life in Memphis, and descriptions of those he praised for their courage and those who failed.

Dee Jones, AHIP, Marianne Comegys
Transforming 50 Cubic Feet of Papers, 4000 Slides, and 250 Videotapes Into an Archive Celebrating the Life and Work of Dr. John C. McDonald

This poster will describe the process of assembling an archive consisting of the primary source materials of Dr. John C. McDonald and to further utilize those resources as the basis of a website. McDonald, Chancellor of the Louisiana State University, Shreveport, is a pioneering transplant surgeon who was instrumental in the establishment of the national organ sharing network. Manuscripts of research papers, seminal files of organ transplant organizations, and papers pertinent to McDonald's 30-year tenure at LSU as chairman of the Surgery Department, Dean, and Chancellor will be assembled, sorted, arranged, and described according to current standards of archival practice. Slides that accompany his research will be digitized and older formats of audiovisuals will be transferred to CD-ROM. A website highlighting the various aspects of Dr. McDonald's career will be developed using images of materials in the archive. An expert in digitization and website design will be brought in as a consultant. We will collaborate with the a Foundation to secure private and public sector funding for this project.

Mark Vrabel, AHIP, Christine Maloney
Walking and talking through history: Putting to use the archived materials of a specialty nursing association

This poster highlights the ways the archived materials of a specialty nursing association have been utilized and promoted, particularly during anniversary celebrations. The Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) is a national organization of more than 32,000 registered nurses and other healthcare professionals. ONS maintains an archived collection of project files, photographs, oral history recordings, and other materials of historical significance. These materials are utilized in various ways, especially during anniversary years such as ONS's 25th and 30th anniversaries. Anniversary celebrations were limited in duration to that given year, and the results of all associated activities were documented in official reports completed by the anniversary project team, of which the librarian was a member. Other archives projects are ongoing, such as the oral history interviews, national office display case, and assistance to Chapter and SIG histories. Feedback on the "walk through history" was solicited via a comment box placed at the end of the exhibit. The exhibit also received outside media coverage; for example, an article was published in Nursing Spectrum. For activities of this nature, much of the feedback is more informal, such as verbal comments from exhibit attendees and viewers of displays. In 2000 (ONS 25th anniversary) and 2005 (30th anniversary), some ways in which archived materials were used included a "walk through history" exhibit at the Annual Congress highlighting the Society's growth/achievements (it also included significant social and medical trends/headlines); a supplement to the Society's Oncology Nursing Forum journal documenting the organization's development (reprinting many photos and documents from the archives); columns in the Society's ONS News authored by the librarian, as well as excerpts from the oral history interview transcripts of ONS past presidents (excerpts also were displayed as captions to hanging portraits in the aforementioned "walk through history" exhibit). Archived materials are put to use outside of anniversary years as well, via rotating displays in the national office, providing photos and research materials for a book on the history of oncology nursing, and assisting ONS Chapters and Special Interest Groups (SIGs) with their own historical needs.

Christopher Ryland, Mary Teloh, Jeremy Nordmoe, Qinghua Kou
Managing and Disseminating Historical Content via an Archival Knowledge Management Database Application

To describe the structure, development, and use of a knowledge management database application designed to manage internal and external aspects of archival knowledge and content. Special collections staff and programmers at a large academic health sciences center library developed a database application to manage, disseminate, and leverage knowledge related to archival and special collections, including internal process management and external deployment of archival knowledge. This application manages each step of the archival process, from maintaining data about individuals and organizations to the appraisal, accessioning, processing and use of archival materials. Adhering to the library's philosophy of modular application development, which requires easy re-use and targeted integration with existing tools, the database operates in alignment with the library's special collections digital library to allow dynamic generation of archival finding aids and metadata records on a near real-time basis. Furthermore, the incorporation of principles of re-use and interoperability into this and other library-developed tools helps to strategically position the library to address future knowledge, content and document management needs.

2006 Program